Gymnastics: Injury, Prevention, Treatment - A Brief Overview 

In every sport--not just gymnastics--there stands the risk of injury, no matter how adept or flexible your gymnast happens to be. The sport requires a lot of psychological and physical preparation, in part because it is extremely rigorous, and in part because it demands a higher level of skill than most other sports. The complexity that routines entail increases the risk of painful injury and fatigue if proper preparations are not taken to ensure all-around safety.

The most common injuries to the body are those to the ankles and feet, the lower back, knees, hands, and wrists. These can be due to overuse or simple stress. The lower body injuries are generally because of unbalanced landings, while the back experiences strain when insufficient stretching has been performed. Scrapes and bruises are to be expected, even if your gymnast is properly attired -- so simply be prepared. Any injury to a gymnast’s body can be detrimental to his or her performance in the future. Stiffness can result from lack of use of a limb or of the back if he or she is put out of the game for too long--that is, if the injury is serious. For the most part, as a parent, you will have to deal with less serious injuries (hopefully), and you will not need to visit the doctor’s office to have them treated.

In any case, the best course of action is indeed prevention. The standard safety measures in any sport are simple and easily implemented, most especially for gymnastics.

First, you will want to make sure that your gymnast wears the proper clothing. If he or she has long hair, tie it back, braid it, or otherwise secure it. Do not allow them to wear clothing that is too loose or baggy and conducive to tripping. Remove all jewelry. Rings, for instance, can be caught on swelling fingers if one is sprained. Earrings can be torn from earlobes or carteliage in a mishap.

Then, make sure that you and your gymnast takes stock of the surroundings. Wires from equipment can trip or cut; running into poles or other gymnasts can be a disaster. To trip on a mat that is higher than the current surface might be painful.

Next, have them warm up. Warmups are vital to any sport, and every gymnast, whether they are a preschooler or a professional, should do them before starting any strenuous activity. This includes jogging, speed walking, and stretching -- anything to get the blood moving and the heart pumping. Believe it or not, a good stretch decreases the risk of a strained or pulled muscle, and it actually feels good. If you’re training with your young gymnast at home or otherwise on your own time, it’s advisable to be a good role model and join them in their warm-ups. Turn on some music and move too. It’s a triple plus: you’ll be showing her or him how to properly warm up, that you are interested in what they are doing, and you will be getting your heart rate going strong too.

When your gymnast is out on the floor, make sure that he or she takes breaks for water frequently. Hydration is key to good health. If he or she is sweating profusely, dehydration is possible, and that too can be a disaster waiting in the wings.

Beyond all of the hazards of gymnastics, there is treatment for any injuries received. Of course, if your gymnast is injured severely, a doctor visit might be the best idea -- or even the emergency room. However, that is simply common sense. On the other hand, if your child is not injured severely, you may wish to take care of him or her yourself.

But whatever you decide to do, please understand I am not a doctor and you should always consult your family doctor if you have any problems or concerns.

For sprains, strains, bumps and bruises, you should use ice for the first twenty four hours. Ice cubes in a plastic bag with a facecloth or a hand towel wrapped around the bag itself is sufficient if you do not have a medical ice pack. Never place ice directly against skin - and never ice for more than twenty to thirty minutes at a time.

Three or four times in the first day after the injury should be sufficient. After that, gentle heat compresses will help to relax any muscle spasms or pain that isn’t taken care of with some kind of pain reliever (consult a doctor before giving your gymnast ANY medication).

Hopefully, you’ll never have to deal with injuries -- but remember, prevention is better than anything else. Keep this in mind and be safe.


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Sports injuries and rehabilitation, training, and performance.

Here you’ll find expert advice about injuries and rehabilitation, suggested training routines, and recommended performance techniques for all kinds of sports.

To get started, simply choose your sport below and discover ways in which you can improve your sporting injuries, training and performance.

For more expert advice about injuries, treatment and exercises, take a look at our Treatment Room and Exercise Finder.

Foot ball


Football can cause all kinds of injuries, usually because of poor or non-existent training and performance techniques. Understand how football injuries happen and how they can be treated, as well as various techniques for improving training routines and performance levels. Take a look at our recommended products for treating football injuries and complementing fitness workouts.



As such a high impact sport, rugby players tend to experience injuries on a regular basis. The rough tackling and handling of the ball, and sudden bursts of sprints can cause a variety of injuries. Take a look at our advice about the common rugby injuries and how you can treat them, as well as some traditional and more unique training and performance techniques.



Maintaining high endurance levels and maximising upper body strength is key to improving your fitness and performance levels in cricket. Cricket requires players to endure long periods of rest, so emotional and physical factors are important. Take a look at different cricket injuries, and our recommended traditional and unusual training and performance routines.

golf ball


Many people enjoy playing golf as a past time, as well as in more competitive environments. Many golf injuries are caused by poor swing mechanisms, with wrist, shoulders and backs commonly injured. Read our expert advice about how to treat golf injuries, recommended golf training and how to improve your golf performance.



Many people enjoy going out for a bike ride, either to maintain fitness or for a bit of fun, but cycling can also cause many injuries. Read our recommended cycling training techniques to increase your fitness levels and reduce the risk of injury, as well as ways to improve your performance.

tennis ball


Whether you play tennis for fun or in a more competitive environment, you will probably have experienced a variety of injuries. Take a look at our advice about tennis injuries, treatment and prevention, as well as recommended training performance techniques.



Swimming doesn’t carry as high a risk of injury as other sports, such as rugby and football. Ensuring efficient and effective training is important in swimming, as is find ways in which is maximise your fitness and performance levels. Read our advice about swimming injuries, and suggested training and performance methods.

running thumbnail


Running is such a popular sport, whether it’s competing or simply going for a leisurely jog, but that also means that injuries are common. Effective training is important in reducing the risk of injury and improving performance techniques can help to make running easier and more enjoyable. Take a look at our running injury, training and performance advice.

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Risk of hypothermia in a new Olympic event: the 10-km marathon swim.

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. castrorrt@terra.com.br

INTRODUCTION: There are no available data addressing the potential clinical risks of open-water swimming competitions. OBJECTIVE: Address the risks of hypothermia and hypoglycemia during a 10-km open-water swimming competition in order to alert physicians to the potential dangers of this recently-introduced Olympic event. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study, conducted during a 10-km open-water event (water temperature 21 degrees C). The highest ranked elite open-water swimmers in Brazil (7 men, 5 women; ages 21+/-7 years old) were submitted to anthropometrical measurements on the day before competition. All but one athlete took maltodextrine ad libitum during the competition. Core temperature and capillary glycemia data were obtained before and immediately after the race. RESULTS: Most athletes (83%) finished the race with mild to moderate hypothermia (core temperature <35 degrees C). The body temperature drop was more pronounced in female athletes (4.2+/-0.7 degrees C vs. male: 2.7+/-0.8 degrees C; p=0.040). When data from the athlete who did not take maltodextrine was excluded, capillary glycemia increased among athletes (pre 86.6+/-8.9 mg/dL; post 105.5+/-26.9 mg/dL; p=0.014). Time to complete the race was inversely related to pre- competition body temperature in men (r=-0.802; p=0.030), while it was inversely correlated with the change in capillary glycemia in women (r=-0.898; p=0.038). CONCLUSION: Hypothermia may occur during open-water swimming events even in elite athletes competing in relatively warm water. Thus, core temperature must be a chief concern of any physician during an open-water swim event. Capillary glycemia may have positive effects on performance. Further studies that include more athletes in a controlled setting are warranted.

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سلام دوستان گلم

من این مقاله رو چند ماهه پیش در وبلاگم گذاشته بودم این چند هفته ترجمشو برای بیشتر از ده نفر فرستادم تصمیم گرفتم که ترجمشو در این قسمت بذارم

معذرت می خوام از کسانی که ایمیلشونو گذاشتن تا براشون بفرستم .... وقت نمی کنم

واسه همین اگر لطف کنید خودتون از این جا بردارید ممنون میشم :

انعطاف پذیری توسط Gummerson  این گونه تعریف شده است : " دامنه حرکتی مطلق دریک مفصل یا مجموعه ای از مفاصل که در یک تلاش آنی و زود گذر با کمک یار مقابل یا یک وسیله مجهز قابل دسترسی است ." این تعریف به ما می گوید که انعطاف پذیری چیزی عام و کلی نیست ؛ اما برای یک مفصل مخصوص یا مجموعه ای از مفاصل ویژه و خاص است . به عبارت دیگر ، این یک افسانه است که بعضی از افراد به طور ذاتی در تمام بدنشان انعطاف پذیر هستند . وجود انعطاف پذیری در یک منطقه یا مفصل خاص لزوما ً اشاره نمی کند  به این که عضو دیگر هم انعطاف پذیر است . وجود سستی در قسمت فوقانی بدن به این معنی نیست که قسمت تحتانی بدن شما هم سست است . به علاوه مطابق با SynerStretch  انعطاف پذیری در یک مفصل هم چنین " ایفا کننده حرکت خاص درمفصل ( توانایی انجام باز کردن مفصل جلویی به توانایی باز کردن جانبی اشاره نمی کند حتی اگر هر دو حرکت در لگن اتفاق بیفتد .) "

·        انواع انعطاف پذیری

·        فاکتورها و عوامل محدود کننده انعطاف پذیری

·        کشش و انعطاف پذیری

·        انعطاف پذیری بیش از حد

خیلی از این افراد از این حقیقت بی اطلاع هستند که انواع مختلفی از انعطاف پذیری وجود دارد . این انواع مختلف انعطاف پذیری مطابق با انواع مختلف فعالیت هایی که شامل تمرین ورزشی هستند ، گروه بندی می شوند . یک نوع آن که شامل حرکت می شود دینامیک نامیده می شود و نوع دیگری که حرکت ندارد استاتیک نامیده می شود . انواع مختلف انعطاف پذیری

 ( همانطورکه  Kurz می  گوید ) :

·        انعطاف پذیری دینامیک ( انعطاف پذیری کینتیک یا جنبشی هم نامیده می شود )

·        انعطاف پذیری فعال استاتیک ( انعطاف پذیری فعال یا اکتیو هم نامیده می شود )

·        انعطاف پذیری غیر فعال استاتیک (انعطاف پذیری غیر فعال یا پسیو هم نامیده میشود)

تحقیق نشان داده است که انعطاف پذیری فعال نسبت به انعطاف پذیری غیر فعال ارتباط بیشتری با دستیابی به سطوح ورزشی دارد . انعطاف پذیری فعال نسبت به انعطاف پذیری غیر فعال سخت تر رشد و توسعه پیدا می کند . ( که این بیشترین موردی است که افراد در رابطه با انعطافپذیری فکر می کنند ) انعطاف پذیری فعال فقط برای پیدا کردن موقعیت گسترش نخستین به انعطاف پذیری غیر فعال نیاز ندارد . آن هم چنین به قدرت عضله برای توانایی حفظ و نگه داشتن موقعیت هم نیاز دارد . همانطورکه Gummerson  می گوید ، انعطاف پذیری (او از اصطلاح پویایی استفاده می کند ) تحت تأثیرفاکتور های زیر است :

1.     اثرات درونی

·        نوع مفاصل ( بعضی مفاصل به سادگی انعطاف پذیر نمی شوند )

·        پایداری درونی داخل یک مفصل

·        شکستگی های استخوان که حرکت را محدود می کند

·        کشسانی بافت عضله ( بافت عضله ای که جای زخم از یک آسیب قبلی روی آن است

 خیلی کشسان نیست )

·        کشسانی تاندون ها و لیگامنت ها ( لیگامنت ها خیلی زیاد کشیده نمی شوند و تاندون ها

 نباید اصلا ً کشیده شوند )

·        کشسانی پوست ( پوست در حقیقت در جه ای از کشسانی دارد ، اما نه زیاد )

·        توانایی یک عضله برای استراحت و انقباض برای به دست آوردن بیشترین دامنه حرکت

·   دمای مفصل و بافت های پیوسته به آن ( مفاصل و عضلات در دمای 1 تا 20 درجه بیشتر از

 دمای طبیعی بدن انعطاف پذیری بهتری دارند )

2. اثرات خارجی

·        دمای محیطی که در آن تمرین می کنند ( دمای گرمتربیشتر موجب افزایش انعطاف پذیری می شود )

·        ساعات روز ( بیشتر افراد در بعد از ظهر بیشتر از صبح انعطاف پذیر هستند ، اوج انعطاف پذیری از ساعت 2:30 تا 4 بعد از ظهر است )

·   مرحله ای در فرآیند برگشت به حالت اولیه ( ریکاوری ) مفصل ( یا عضله ) بعد از آسیب( مفاصل و عضلات آسیب دیده معمولا ً چند درجه کمتر از زمانی که سالم هستند انعطاف پذیر

 هستند )

·        سن ( سنین قبل از بلوغ عموما ً از بالغان بیشتر انعطاف پذیرند )

·        جنس ( خانم ها عموما ً بیشترً از آقایان انعطاف پذیرند )

·        یک توانایی که با یک تمرین خاص انجام می شود ( تمرین کامل می کند )

·        یک تعهد به دستیابی به انعطاف پذیری

·        محدودیت در هر پوشش یا هر تجهیزاتی

بعضی منابع هم چنین پیشنهاد می کنند که آب یک عنصر غذایی مهم وابسته به انعطاف پذیری است . معتقدند که بازده آب افزایش یافته با افزایش پویایی مشارکت می کند ، به خوبی آرامش کل بدن را افزایش می دهد . بیشتر از بحث کردن روی هر یک از این جرئیات مهم فاکتورها،به عنوان Gummerson من تلاش خواهم کرد تا روی بعضی از بیشترین فاکتورهای رایجی که انعطاف پذیری را محدود می کنند متمرکز شوم .

مطابق با SynerStretch ، بیشتر فاکتورها ی رایج اینها هستند ، شکستگی استخوان ، توده یا جرم عضله ، بافت چربی زیاد ، و بافت رباط ( و البته ، آسیب جسمانی یا ناتوانی ) . وابستگی بین نوع مفصل درگیر در حرکت و شرایطی که ارائه می دهد ( آیا آن سالم است ؟ )، شکستگی استخوان در مکانهایی از مفصل خاص برای محدودیت انعطاف پذیری خیلی قابل توجه هستند . این یک روش رایج است که سن می تواند یک فاکتور محدود کننده انعطاف پذیری باشد که مفاصل افراد مسن تر مثل افراد جوانتر ( از نظر سلامتی ) محافظت نمی شوند. توده یا جرم عضله می تواند یک فاکتور باشد زمانی که عضله به طور سنگینی رشد می کند که این با توانایی بردن مفاصل نزدیک هم ، برای دامنه حرکتی کامل شان مداخله می کند .( برای مثال ، همسترینگ های بزرگ توانایی خمیدگی کامل زانو را محدود می کنند ) . توده چربی زیاد یک محدودیت مشابه را تحمیل می کند .

اکثر کار( انعطاف پذیری )باید مستلزم انجام تمرین های طراحی شده ای باشد که مقاومت داخلی را کاهش می دهد که پیشنهاد می شود توسط بافت نرم انجام شود . بیشتر تمرینات کششی تلاش می کنند تا این هدف را به انجام برسانند و می توانند توسط تقریبا ً هرکسی صرفنظر از سن وجنس انجام شود .

 متن انگلیسی در ادامه مطلبه

ادامه مطلب
+ نوشته شده در  جمعه ۱۵ آذر۱۳۸۷ساعت ۱۴:۱۲ بعد از ظهر  توسط یه امیدوار  | 




ببخشید واسه این همه تاخیر

این یک مقاله انگلیسی درمورد انعطاف پذیریه .

خودم این مقاله رو ترجمه کردم

ترجمه در ادامه مطلب



Flexibility is defined by Gummerson as "the absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment." This definition tells us that flexibility is not something general but is specific to a particular joint or set of joints. In other words, it is a myth that some people are innately flexible throughout their entire body. Being flexible in one particular area or joint does not necessarily imply being flexible in another. Being "loose" in the upper body does not mean you will have a "loose" lower body. Furthermore, according to SynerStretch, flexibility in a joint is also "specific to the action performed at the joint (the ability to do front splits doesn't imply the ability to do side splits even though both actions occur at the hip)."


ادامه مطلب
+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه ۲۷ مرداد۱۳۸۷ساعت ۱:۱۷ قبل از ظهر  توسط یه امیدوار  | 


اینم متن انگلیسی مطلب پایینی :

" posterior cruciate ligament injury  "


The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is described as the primary stabilizer of the knee by many authors. PCL injuries are less common than anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, and they often go unrecognized. The PCL is broader and stronger than the ACL and has a tensile strength of 2000 N. Injury most often occurs when a force is applied to the anterior aspect of the proximal tibia when the knee is flexed. Hyperextension and rotational or varus/valgus stress mechanisms also may be responsible for PCL tears. Injuries may be isolated or combined with other ligamentous injuries. A PCL tear can result in varying degrees of disability, from no impairment to severe impairment.

The primary function of the PCL is to prevent posterior translation of the tibia on the femur. The PCL also plays a role as a central axis controlling and imparting rotational stability to the knee. This injury has received little attention in the past, compared with the ACL; however, this emphasis on the ACL has stimulated increased interest in the treatment of PCL injuries. Controversy regarding treatment exists in the literature, with recommendations supporting both operative and nonoperative therapy.

ادامه مطلب
+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه ۱۸ اردیبهشت۱۳۸۷ساعت ۹:۰ قبل از ظهر  توسط یه امیدوار  | 

These exercises are designed to strengthen your back


برگرفته از سایت  :


ادامه مطلب
+ نوشته شده در  شنبه ۳۱ فروردین۱۳۸۷ساعت ۱۳:۱۲ بعد از ظهر  توسط یه امیدوار  | 

The Benefits of Flexibility Training

By increasing this joint range of motion, performance may be enhanced and the risk of injury reduced (3,4). The rationale for this is that a limb can move further before an injury occurs.

Tight neck muscles for example, may restrict how far you can turn your head. If, during a tackle, your head is forced beyond this range of movement it places strain on the neck muscles and tendons.

Ironically, static stretching just prior an event may actually be detrimental to performance and offer no protection from injury (5,6). The emphasis is on "may" however, as a closer examination of the scientific literature shows that effects are often minimal and by no means conclusive.

Muscle tightness, which has been associated with an increased risk of muscle tears (7,8), can be reduced before training or competing with dynamic stretching. For this reason many coaches now favor dynamic stretches over static stretches as part of the warm up.

Competitive sport can have quite an unbalancing effect on the body (9,10). Take racket sports for example. The same arm is used to hit thousands of shots over and over again. One side of the body is placed under different types and levels of stress compared to the other. The same is true for sports like soccer and Australian rules football where one kicking foot usually predominates. A flexibility training program can help to correct these disparities preventing chronic, over-use injury.

Of course, a more flexible athlete is a more mobile athlete. It allows enhanced movement around the court or field with greater ease and dexterity. Some other benefits may include an increase in body awareness and a promotion of relaxation in the muscle groups stretched - both of which may have positive implications for skill acquisition and performance.

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه ۲۰ اسفند۱۳۸۶ساعت ۱۴:۴۴ بعد از ظهر  توسط یه امیدوار  | 


About Basketball

Basketball is played by teams of 5 players, with an official playing time of 40 minutes; game play is comprised of 4 quarters of 10 minutes each. However, with many stoppages throughout the game, players will often be on-court upwards of 60 minutes.

Basketball is a game that is characterised by jumping (to contest possession), and repeated short fast sprints and breaks. Thus, Basketball players will utilise both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Players are also required to think tactically and display good technical ball skills for the duration of the game.

Depending on the level of competition, players will train anywhere from one session per week to one or two sessions per day

Training Diet

It is important to eat a diet that has adequate amounts of carbohydrate - this will ensure your muscle glycogen levels are topped up, thus fuelling those fast sprints! As with all sports, a balanced diet that is low in fat and high in vitamins and minerals (from plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables) will help to keep up energy levels, enabling you to perform at your best.

Fluid Needs

In order to stay hydrated, you should consume fluids before, during and after training and matches. However, your body fluid losses will vary depending on your training and competition times and venues.

If you are playing on an indoor air-conditioned court, you may find that you don't sweat as much as if you are playing on a poorly ventilated court, or outdoors in the summer heat. Hot playing conditions will result in noticeably high body fluid losses; however, you should also be aware that you can still lose significant amounts of body fluids when playing in air-conditioned venues. Yet due to the cool environment, you are unlikely to feel the need to replace these losses.

Thus, rather than relying on sweat rate or thirst to determine your fluid needs, a more reliable method of assessing your body fluid losses is to weigh yourself before and after the game/training. For each kilogram of body weight lost, try to drink 1L of fluid - this can be either in the form of water or sports drink.

Before Training/Competition

Start well hydrated, by consuming 200-400mL of fluids during your warm-up. In the 2 hours before the game, try to consume 7-8mL per kilogram of your body weight (For example, a 70kg male would consume ~490-560mL in the hours before playing)

During Training/Competition

Frequent breaks in game play (substitutions, stoppages, quarter & half time) provide the perfect opportunity to take in fluids. Try to drink a large bottle of fluid (eg. 600mL water bottle) for every hour of game play, or 150-200mL every 15-20 minutes.

New research shows that sports drinks may enhance performance of activities less than 60 minutes in duration, therefore it may be beneficial to use sports drinks during a game as your drink of choice! Furthermore, sports drinks are more palatable than plain water, and larger volumes tend to be taken in than when drinking plain water alone.

After Training/Competition

Replace sweat losses. Again, ensure you drink 1L of fluid (water and/or sports drinks) for every kilogram of body weight lost.

What Should I Eat Pre-Event?

The pre-event meal should be eaten 2-4 hours prior to playing, and should be accompanied by plenty of fluids. Your meal should be high in carbohydrate and low in fat. Sample meals include:

  • Pancakes with maple syrup/honey and chopped banana
  • 2 x sandwiches/bread rolls with your favourite fillings
  • 2 cups of breakfast cereal with low-fat milk and yoghurt
  • 2 low fat muesli bars & fresh fruit
  • Baked beans on toast, glass of juice
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Carbohydrates are classified as either "simple" or "complex". Some common simple carbohydrates include glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and are typically associated with sweet foods and ripe fruits. The complex carbohydrates are either digestible (starches) or indigestible (fiber). The digestible complex carbohydrates are ultimately "digested" to the simple carbohydrate glucose when they are consumed. While the ultimate "fuel" for muscles is glucose, complex carbohydrates usually carry with them other nutrients, such as B vitamins, which are necessary for muscles to get energy from the foods we’ve eaten. Simple carbohydrates (sugars) on the other hand, do provide energy but may not contain the other nutrients needed to use this energy. Therefore, it is generally recommended that athletes consume no less than 60% of total calories from carbohydrates, and no more than 10% of these calories in the form of simple carbohydrates. Good sources of carbohydrates include pasta, bread, cereal, legumes (beans), fruits, and vegetables.

Glycogen is the storage form of glucose, and it is called upon when muscles need more fuel.  Glycogen is needed for both endurance and strength events, but the human body has a limited capacity to store it.  Therefore, even though athletes need a lot of it we only have a limited supply. Therefore, it is important to take every opportunity to keep this glycogen "fuel tank" full by making carbohydrates a main part of the foods usually consumed, and by eating carbohydrates before, during, and immediately after exercise. Providing a constant supply of carbohydrates is the best, simplest, and safest means of "glycogen loading". Because glycogen is only efficiently stored when an athlete is well hydrated, it is also important to make certain that plenty of fluids are consumed while eating carbohydrates.

This is a list of some commonly consumed foods with the distribution of carbohydrate, protein, and fat: (Kcal=Calories)

Food Calories % Carbohydrate



1 raw apple 84 100 0 0
10 grapes 36 100 0 0
1 cup orange juice 104 96 4 0
1 oz Rice Crispies cereal 108 93 7 0
1 baked potato 148 92 8 0
1 banana 105 89 3 7
1 cup spaghetti with sauce 198 79 12 9
1 bagel 198 77 14 9
1 slice bread 69 75 12 13
1 oz Cheerios cereal
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Aging, Health and Well Being of United States Master Swimmers

It is widely supposed that individuals who maintain an active lifestyle live longer and live better. Most studies to date have focused upon the consequences of physical inactivity on health and well being, whereas few studies have specifically targeted those who might be considered the most active. In theory, participants who engage in organized physical training might display favorable aging outcomes as compared to those displayed by the population at large.

The Counsilman Center for the Science of Swimming, led by Dr. Joel Stager, examined this potential phenomenon through an examination of potential biomarkers of aging, physical function, health, quality of life, and physical activity patterns within the Master Swimmers population. The primary purpose of this research was to determine whether or not individuals who can be described as highly active have a higher quality of life and a more favorable functional and health status. Physiological data (biomarkers of aging) were collected at the 2004 United States Masters Swimming Championships where the subjects also completed a questionnaire describing their swimming history, physical activity, health and quality of life.

Comparisons between the general population and members of a highly fit competitive population suggest that despite similarities in height and weight the active population exhibits numerous traits consistent with optimal aging outcomes such as retention of pulmonary function, muscle mass and strength, and a more favorable blood lipid and blood pressure profile. Data which was presented at the 2005 American College of Sports Medicine Conference ( Nashville, Tennessee) and a discussion of our results may be viewed by following this link: Biological Markers of Aging in Highly Active Adults.


ادامه مطلب
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What is speed؟

Speed is the quickness of movement of a limb, whether this is the legs of a runner or the arm of the shot putter. Speed is an integral part of every sport and can be expressed as any one of, or combination of, the following: maximum speed, elastic strength (power) and speed endurance.

How is speed influenced?

Speed is influenced by the athlete's mobility, special strength, strength endurance and technique

+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه ۸ آذر۱۳۸۶ساعت ۱۲:۲۲ بعد از ظهر  توسط یه امیدوار  | 


Flexibility is defined by Gummerson as "the absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment." This definition tells us that flexibility is not something general but is specific to a particular joint or set of joints. In other words, it is a myth that some people are innately flexible throughout their entire body. Being flexible in one particular area or joint does not necessarily imply being flexible in another. Being "loose" in the upper body does not mean you will have a "loose" lower body. Furthermore, according to SynerStretch, flexibility in a joint is also "specific to the action performed at the joint (the ability to do front splits doesn't imply the ability to do side splits even though both actions occur at the hip)."

Types of Flexibility

Many people are unaware of the fact that there are different types of flexibility. These different types of flexibility are grouped according to the various types of activities involved in athletic training. The ones which involve motion are called dynamic and the ones which do not are called static. The different types of flexibility (according to Kurz) are:

dynamic flexibility
Dynamic flexibility (also called kinetic flexibility) is the ability to perform dynamic (or kinetic) movements of the muscles to bring a limb through its full range of motion in the joints.

static-active flexibility
Static-active flexibility (also called active flexibility) is the ability to assume and maintain extended positions using only the tension of the agonists and synergists while the antagonists are being stretched (see section Cooperating Muscle Groups). For example, lifting the leg and keeping it high without any external support (other than from your own leg muscles).

static-passive flexibility
Static-passive flexibility (also called passive flexibility) is the ability to assume extended positions and then maintain them using only your weight, the support of your limbs, or some other apparatus (such as a chair or a barre). Note that the ability to maintain the position does not come solely from your muscles, as it does with static-active flexibility. Being able to perform the splits is an example of static-passive flexibility.

Research has shown that active flexibility is more closely related to the level of sports achievement than is passive flexibility. Active flexibility is harder to develop than passive flexibility (which is what most people think of as "flexibility"); not only does active flexibility require passive flexibility in order to assume an initial extended position, it also requires muscle strength to be able to hold and maintain that position.

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Flat feet is the most common foot deformity known. In fact, sixty million Americans or 25% of the U.S. population have flat feet [1]. Some of these people may experience problems that limit their activities, while others can run marathons or play in the NBA. The good news is that the vast majority of cases, especially in children, require only conservative (non-surgical) treatment, if any at all.


What is Flat Feet?

If you've ever seen your footprints in the sand and they looked more like bricks than feet, then you probably have flat feet. Simply stated, a flat foot is a foot that does not have an arch when standing. In the medical world, flat feet are associated with "pronated" feet. Pronated is merely the term used to describe the position of the foot when it is flexed upward (dorsiflexed), turned away from the body (abducted), and the heel is rolled outward (everted), all at the same time. A certain amount of pronation is required for normal walking, but too much pronation is often considered a foot's "worst enemy." Over time, excessive pronation can lead to many unpleasant problems including heel pain, bunions, hammertoes, shin splints, and even knee, hip, or back pain. In fact, in his private practice, orthopedic surgeon Dr. Pryce discovered that 95% of his total knee replacement patients and 90% of his total hip replacement patients had flat feet [1]. An easy way to tell if you pronate too much is to take a look at your athletic shoes-excessive wearing of the inside heel (arch side of the shoe) as compared to the outside is a classic indication of excessive pronation.

The normal foot is made up of 28 bones, 30 joints, 128 ligaments, 22 muscles, and 49 tendons. These structures are all arranged in such a way as to be rigid enough to support the weight of the body at certain times, yet flexible enough to conform to the contours of the ground and absorb shock at others. During every step taken while walking or running, the foot switches from rigid to flexible and back to rigid. The focal structure of this ability is the arch. When the arch is high, the foot is rigid for support or pushing off. When the arch is low (as occurs with pronation), the foot is flexible for conforming. So you see, if the arch is fixed in a position too high or too low, or if it is unable to switch back and forth, the foot cannot function properly.

+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه ۱۷ آبان۱۳۸۶ساعت ۲۳:۲۷ بعد از ظهر  توسط یه امیدوار  | 

Why you need to stretch            

Flexibility is important because having flexible muscles allows your joints to move through a full range of motion. You need a certain amount of flexibility to move smoothly, avoid muscle tension and to keep your body protected from injury.

Stretching is one way to keep the body flexible, especially the muscles that are tight as a result of bad posture. Although stretching is typically the most overlooked part of an exercise routine, it's an important one and, for many of us, the best part of the workout.

Why Should You Stretch?

·                                 You'll improve your performance and reduce your risk of injury

·                                 You'll reduce muscle soreness and improve your posture

·                                 You'll help reduce lower back pain

·                                 You'll increase blood and nutrients to the tissues

·                                 You'll improve your coordination

·                                 You'll enjoy exercise more and help reduce stress

How to Stretch

1.                              Your best bet is to stretch after your workout when your muscles are warm and you're ready for a cool down.

You don't have to stretch before your workout but, if you do, make sure you do it after the warm up. Stretching cold muscles can cause injury.

2.                              When doing static stretches, don't bounce. Hold a comfortable position until you feel a gentle pull on your muscle. It shouldn't hurt and bouncing could cause you to pull a muscle.

3.                              Try to hold each stretch for 15-30 seconds to get some long-term flexibility benefits.

4.                              You can also stretch between strength training sets and you may want to perform light stretches throughout the day to deal with tight shoulders, neck and lower back.

When you stretch after the workout, try to hit all the muscles you used, paying close attention to any chronically tight areas.


Yoga is another way to stretch your body while also working on balance, endurance and stress relief. Adding yoga to your routine a few times a week is a nice compliment to strength training and cardio, giving you a gentle, soothing way to work your body and mind
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Creatine side effects: Creatine supplementation produces no side effects, according to this new study

Recent surveys have indicated that athletes who supplement their diets with creatine monohydrate suffer an increased risk of adverse side effects, including fatigue, muscle cramping, and even musculoskeletal injury. However, few, if any, of these surveys have involved carefully controlled research, so it has been unclear whether the negative events associated with creatine use are statistically significant. To learn more about the effects of creatine supplementation on the health of athletes, researchers from the Human Performance Laboratory at Arkansas State University recently completed a controlled, 18-week study with 41 Division 1 college baseball players. The research spanned both the pre-season training period and the in-season competitions (‘Creatine Supplementation Does Not Adversely Affect Health Status of Division I Baseball Players,’ Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Vol. 16(4), p. 7 (Supplement), 2002.).

Twenty-three (56%) of the athletes ingested creatine (20 to 30 grams per day for five to seven days and five grams per day thereafter), while the remaining 18 took none. Creatine-using athletes experienced significantly less fatigue during the first two weeks of the study, when the training was particularly heavy, and the creatine users also displayed reduced arm and shoulder fatigue (important for baseball players) during weeks four and six, compared with non-creatine athletes. In addition, the creatine-supplemented baseball players reported that they were ready to perform at their personal best during weeks four, five, and seven, while non-supplemented athletes failed to report this feeling at any time during the study. Most importantly (for our focus on injury prevention), the creatine supplementation was not linked with a higher risk of muscle cramping or any sort of musculoskeletal injury.


+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه ۷ مرداد۱۳۸۶ساعت ۱۱:۵۴ قبل از ظهر  توسط یه امیدوار  | 

dehydration & brain damage

Brain damage risk from dehydration

Dehydration leads to changes in the volume of compartments within the cranium that could put sportsmen and women at risk of brain damage after head injuries, according to a team of UK researchers (‘The effects of dehydration on brain volume – preliminary results’, International Journal of Sports Medicine 2005; 26:481-485).

In adults, the cranium (the part of the skull that encloses the brain) is a rigid bony vault of fixed size, with a constant volume that is the product of the volume of the brain, the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a compartment known as the subarachnoid space, and the intra- cranial blood. The brain is suspended within the sub-arachnoid space, which surrounds it with a protective cushion of fluid. The brain itself contains fluid- filled cavities known as the cerebral ventricles, which communicate with the subarachnoid space.

The aim of this pioneering study was to investigate the relationship between dehydration and changes in the volume of the brain and the cerebral ventricles in six healthy male amateur rugby union players.

The subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain before and after a period of exercise designed to cause significant dehydration, while samples of blood and urine were taken before and afterwards to assess the degree of dehydration. One of the subjects (control) undertook a further series of MRI scans to enable the researchers to assess day-to-day fluctuations of brain and ventricular volume in a normally hydrated healthy person.

They found that the subjects lost between 2.1% and 2.6% of their body mass from sweating during the exercise. They also found a correlation between the degree of dehydration and the change in ventricular volume, with changes in the latter much larger than those seen in the normally hydrated control subject.

‘Changes in the volume of the brain, the intracranial CSF (especially the subarachnoid space) and the intracranial blood may influence the outcome of closed head injuries,’ the researchers explain. ‘After an impact to the head the brain will travel further within the cranium before it meets the skull if the subarachnoid space is enlarged than in the normally hydrated state. Consequently it will accelerate to higher velocities and this may increase the likelihood of contusion injuries after blows to the head such as those sustained in boxing, football and rugby’.

Although the researchers acknowledge that their study was too small to be definitive, they conclude that dehydration causes changes in the volume of intra-cranial compartments that may put sportsmen and women at increased risk of brain damage from contusion injury (bruising) and internal haemorrhage after head injuries.

‘Some sportsmen and women, eg boxers, rugby players and footballers, are especially vulnerable to

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